Apr 22, 2012

The Meaning of "Completion" (For "WORKS")

There have been many suggestions of opinion as to what constitute “completion” and the use of some phrases in certain standard forms of building and construction contracts such as “practical completion” and “substantial completion”. 

The completion of the works comprised within a contract is important as not only it has a direct effect on the question of whether the owner of the project can impose liquidated damages on the contractor, but it also usually marks the transfer of certain risks of certain rights between the contractor and the owner of the project. 

Further, and as an additional example to point up the importance of the meaning of “completion”, it may also be used to ascertain the extent of the right to payment in those contracts which provide for progress payments.  In most standard contract forms, “completion” also indicates the commencement of defects liability period.

On the date of practical completion a Completion Certificate is drafted by the owner’s representative (e.g. architect or engineer), signed and distributed to all relevant parties, including the contractor, a record of handover form is signed by all relevant parties, especially the contractor.

 The owner’s representative must also ensure that all the relevant activities set out in the handover plan have been completed.

There are two contractual events relating to completion need be distinguished:
Firstly, practical completion of the works – signified by the issue of the Certificate of Practical under the specific clause of the agreement; and

Secondly, completion of the contract – indicated by the issue of the Final Certificate as provided in the agreement.

Practical completion of the works is referred to in Contract Conditions and it is a date determined by the client’s representative when he is required to issue a certificate clearly stating that the contract has reached this specific stage.
Do you kow that in determining the date of practical completion, the client’s representative should be completely satisfied with the answers the following questions:
(i)   Has the work been carried out in accordance with the requirements of the agreement and Client’s representative’s Instructions?
(ii) Is the building or mill etc. in a suitable state to be taken over by the client for its full and proper use?


Engineers are those who work to develop economic and safe solutions to practical problems, by applying mathematics, scientific knowledge and ingenuity while considering technical constraints[1]. The term is derived from the Latin root "ingenium" meaning "cleverness".[2] The industrial revolution and continuing technological developments of the last few centuries have changed the connotation of the term slightly, resulting in the perception of engineers as applied scientists. We must always remember that, the work of engineers is the link between perceived needs of society and commercial applications[3]. In more specific to the construction industry, an “engineer” as said by R.M. Jackson & J.L. Powell[4], is referring to a person in the engineering construction contract performing the same function as an architect under the traditional construction contract.  It means that engineers are someone who replaces the architects in the work of construction engineering or the building works that need the work of construction engineering.  Referring to commonly found the Memorandum of Agreement between client and consulting engineer of professional services, the meaning of “consultant engineer” is an engineer engaged by the client to provide the professional services as described and detailed in the Contract Terms.
In the case of Holland Hannen & Cubitts (Northen) Ltd. v. Welsh Health Technical Services Organisation[5], the court also  explains that “engineer”, as a person appointed for matters regarding building project, based on the specific skills which are not acknowledged by an architect, for example a civil or structure engineer.  In specific, referring to the Article 4, Article of Agreement for Form of Contracts PAM 1998 and Article 6 and 7, Article of Agreement for Form of Contracts CIDB 2000, “engineer” (a civil and structure engineer of a mechanical and electrical engineer) as named by the clients (including the person who replace the said engineer if he/she dies or discontinue the services).  Furthermore, as emphasized by Abdul Aziz[6], for the definition of an engineer practicing his/her professions in Malaysia, according to section 2, Registration of Engineers Act 1967, he/she must be a registered engineer.
It shall be noted that, Registration of Engineer Act 1967 does not define what is an engineer. But according to section 2 of the Act,
 "Engineering consultancy practice" means a sole proprietorship, partnership or body corporate,providing professional engineering services, registered under section 7A or 7B;
"Graduate Engineer" means a person registered under subsection 10(1);
"Professional Engineer" means a person registered under subsection 10(2);
"registered Engineer" means a Graduate Engineer, Professional Engineer, Temporary Engineer or Accredited Checker;
"Professional Engineer in private practice" means a registered Professional Engineer (other than a salaried employee) who is engaged in advising on engineering matters or in designing and supervising the construction of engineering works whether he is so engaged alone or in partnership;
"Temporary Engineer " means a person registered under section 10A

[1] National Society of Professional Engineers. 2006. "Frequently Asked Questions About Engineering". http://www.nspe.org/media/mr1-faqs.asp. [Retrieved 21.9.2006].  Science is knowledge based on observed facts and tested truths arranged in an orderly system that can be validated and communicated to other people. Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles used to plan, build, direct, guide, manage, or work on systems to maintain and improve our daily lives.; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 2006. "Engineers". Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition.
[2] Oxford Concise Dictionary, 1995. Oxford:OUP.
[4] Jackson, R. M. & Powell, J.L. 1992. Jackson & Powell on Professional Negligence. London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd.
[5] (1985) 35 Build. L.R. 1
[6] Abdul Aziz, Hussin. 2006.  Ahli Professional Projek Pembinaan Perspektif Undang-Undang.  Pulau Pinang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, pp. 12-13 and 17-21.

Apr 20, 2012


Signing the Contract (Construction Works)

When a tender is accepted by client, the tenderer is now becoming the contractor for the said project.

We must understand that in a project, a contract (the agreement) must be in writing and signed by both parties (the Contractor and the Client) before the contractor can commence works.

Do you know, in its ordinary meaning, the word “sign” as a verb means an act of writing one’s name on a document to show that one is the writer or that one agrees with the contents. In other words, signature is an indication, by sign, mark, or generally by writing of a name or initials, that a person (or a body) intends to bind himself to the contents of a document. We must also bear in mind the act of signing itself under the law. Under section 3 of Interpretation Act 1967, “sign” includes the making of a mark or the affixing of a tumb-print.

If a person in an organization has to sign an agreement, he must ensure that he has authority (being authorized) to do so. The agreement must also being affixed with corporate seal of the company (or the seal of the organization), if required by the company’s or organization’s constitution (eg. under the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company). If the firm is a partnership, then any of their partners may sign the contract for and on behalf of the firm.

It is not stated anywhere as to when to sign the contract. However, the very basic principle is, the contract must be signed before commencement of works. If there is any delay due to any unavoidable circumstances, it must be signed within reasonable time.

Apr 18, 2012

Berkongsi Ilmu 38: Kursus Induksi USM

Pada 18 April 2012, saya berpeluang berkongsi ilmu bagi KURSUS INDUKSI dengan lebih 70 penjawat USM yang terdiri daripada penyarah, pegawai tadbir, pustakawan dan lain-lain. Kursus ini anjuran Unit Latihan, Pejabat Transformasi, USM. Alhamdulillah ceramah berjalan lancar dan mendapat sambutan dengan riangnya daripada peserta. Terima kasih kepada semua yer.


According to Haig, M. (2001) and Franzini, L.R. (2002), LOL is an abbreviation for laughing out loud, or laugh out loud (Egan, M, 2002), is a common element of Internet slang. It was used historically on Usenet but is now widespread in other forms of computer-mediated communication, and even face-to-face communication. It is one of much initializes for expressing bodily reactions, in particular laughter.

1. Matt Haig (2001). E-Mail Essentials: How to Make the Most of E-Communications. p. 89. 
  1. Louis R. Franzini (2002). Kids Who Laugh: How to Develop Your Child's Sense of Humor. Square One Publishers, Inc. pp. 145–146. 
  2. Michael Egan (2004). Email Etiquette. Cool Publications Ltd. pp. 32, 57–58. 

Original source: from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Apr 16, 2012

Berkongsi Ilmu 37: Kursus/bengkel Psikologi Kerja

Pada 11-14 April 2012, saya mengendalikan kursus/bengkel "Psikologi Kerja" anjuran Persatuan Badan-badan Berkanun Malaysia di Seaview Hotel, Langkawi. Pesertanya terdiri daripada penjawat Universiti Teknikal Melaka (UTEM), Perbadanan Tabung Pendidikan Tinggi Negara (PTPTN), Institut Pengurusan Kesihatan (IPK), dan SME Corp. Kerjasama mereka dalam menjayakan kursus/bengkel ini amat menggalakkkan. Semoga mereka dapat menyebarluaskan ilmu yang diperolehi kepada orang lain pula.

 En. Nadzri, Urusetia PBBM mengendalikan dokumen kursus

 Saya mengedalikan ceramah...

 Peserta melaksanakan perbincangan kumpulan ("menjelajah kemungkinan") melalui kaedah sumbangsaran...

Wakil peserta membuat pembentangan kumpulan...
 Melaksanakan lagi tugasan kumpulan...
 Saya membantu peserta melancarkan proses sumbangsaran...


Mohon sesiapa yang membaca blog ini dapat membantu: Adakah saya yang silap, ATAU mereka yang silap? Harap kita sama-sama betulkan yer. Ceritanya begini:
Dalam salah satu sisipan siaran tv, terutama semasa berita jam 8 malam, terdapat sisipan yang bertulis,

"Harga semasa petrol RON95- RM3.58/liter, Harga dinikmati pengguna RM1.90/liter, Nilai subsidi kerajaan RM1.09/liter. www.1pengguna.com"

Emmm, betul ker, RM3.58 ditolak RM1.90 bersamaan RM1.09?

Mohon sesiapa dapat betulkan yer (silap saya memahami, atau silap ditulis, atau silap apa ker tu?)

Apr 10, 2012


Batu sebagai objek, sama ada berbentuk batu besar (rock), batu kecil (stone) atau pasir (sand), dan "batu" (mile) sebagai ukuran jarak, banyak digunakan sama ada secara hurufiah atau secara tersirat.

Batu banyak digunakan sebagai nama tempat:
Batu Berendam (Melaka)
Batu Gajah (Perak dan Kelantan)
Batu Lembongan (Indonesia)
Batulicin (Indonesia)
Batu Nuri (Thailand)
Batununggal (Indonesia)
Batu Rakit (Terengganu)
Batu Raking (Terengganu)
Batu Punggul (Sabah)
Batu Batu (Johor)
Batu Lumbung (Indonesia)
Batu Melintang (Kelantan)
Batu Uban (Pulau Pinang)
Batu Cave (Selangor)
Batu Kurau (Perak)
Batu Maung (Pulau Pinang)
Batu Puteh (pulau, Johor)(Kedah)
Batu Pahat (Johor dan Perlis)
Batu Lanchang (Pulau Pinang)
Batu Kawan (Pulau Pinang)
Kuala Batu (Indonesia)
Batu Nabau (Sarawak)
Batu Hampar (Kedah)
Batu Nibong (Sarawak)
Anjung Batu (Johor)
Batu Niah (Sarawak)
Batu Muda (Kuala Lumpur)
Batu Feringhi (Pulau Pinang)
Batu Tangga (Pahang)
Batu Burok (Terengganu)
Tanjung Batu (Sabah)
Batu Bolong (Bali, Indonesia)
Batu Dam (Johor)
Batu Emas (Johor)
Batu Tiga (Selangor)
Kg. Batu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.......dan lain-lain (di seluruh negara)
Batu Gunung (Kedah)
Batu Gantung (Pulau Pinang)
Batu Karang (Selangor)
Batu Lintang (Sarawak)
Batu Muda (Kuala Lumpur)
Batu (Kuala Lumpur, dan Surabaya Indonesia))
Batu Nona (Indonesia)
Batu Road (Kuala Lumpur)
Batu Hampar (Pahang)
Batu June (Terengganu)
Batu Jong (Kelantan)
Bukit Batu (Johor)
Batu Tulug (Sabah)
Tangga Batu (Melaka)
Batu Papan (Kelantan)
Batu Kikir (Negeri Sembilan)


Berapa batu jaraknya dari sini ke sana?
Zaman batu

Terdapat juga perkataan "batu" digunakan dalam perumpamaan, simpulan bahasa dan lain-lain, misalnya,

Berat macam batu
Keras macam batu
Hati batu
Batu loncatan
Batu api
Lontar batu sembunyi tangan

Ada satu lagi perkataan "batu" yang dahulu banyak/kerap digunakan, tetapi kini semakin terhapus penggunaan perkataannya, iaitu


kerana dah digantikan dengan perkataan "ais" (ice)


Apr 7, 2012

Advertising (In Project Procurement)

An appropriately executed bid and contract award process involves at least two following steps:
(a)     Preparing an invitation for bids, describing the building design and specifications clearly, accurately, and completely by avoiding ambiguously provisional specifications or requirements.; and
(b)  Publicizing the invitation for bids in a newspaper (or more than one newspapers) of general circulation or other means as suitable to ensure dispersal to prospective bidders in sufficient time to enable them to prepare and present bids.
Do you know preparing a bid for invitation is the first step in procuring head start construction projects? All professionals involve in project such as project manager and design teams can use this resource to learn about the steps required and the mistakes to avoid in the bidding process. Advertisement in the newspaper usually assert important matters only.  Details usually will be submitted with the covering letter to tenderers which is normally given with the tender documents.  This is essential as it would help to keep advertisement costs low.
Except for the government department or government statutory body, it is possible to take bids before a funding or contract awarded. This can save time when it is essential to receive equipment as soon as possible after a fund begins. To commence this process the client will contact the suitable buyer/contractor. Once the fund approval given, the client can right away place the said order

Apr 6, 2012

Tersilap? ATAU Tersengaja?

Pada awal pagi minggu lepas, semasa saya sedang memandu ke pejabat, saya terdengar seorang pembaca berita radio menyebut, antara lain, "...sepuluh anggota bomba dikejar di tempat kejadian...". Mungkin yang dimaksudkan adalah SEPULUH ANGGOTA BOMBA DIKEJAR KE TEMPAT KEJADIAN. Tak mengapalah, boleh jadi pembaca berita tu tersasul atau tersilap sebut, atau penulis skrip berita tu tersilap taip. Sebab, tak mungkin sepuluh anggota bomba tadi dikejar oleh mangsa-mangsa kebakaran di tempat kebakaran berlaku, kan? he he he...

Nak dijadikan cerita, awal pagi tadi, 6 April 2012, seorang "pendatang baru" (saya namakan dia "Y") ke kafe yang kerap saya kunjungi untuk bersarapan pagi, telah duduk semeja dengan saya, dan seorang sahabat. Sambil kami makan, Y yang berbual rancak dengan kami telah, antara lain, menyebut, "Kalu nak buat baik, berpada-pada la, dan buat jahat jangan sekali". Kami pakat-pakat gelak, tetapi terdetik di hati saya..."Eh, biar betul orang ni...!!!!". Sebab:
Buat baik berpada-pada = Buat baik tu jangan banyak-banyak, sekadar yang sepatut sahaja.
Betul ker?
Buat jahat jangan sekali = Buat jahat hendaklah banyak kali!!!, dan jangan buat cuma sekali???
Betul ker?
Y ni buat kelakar, atau kelakaukarakatau???
Atau dia tersilap atau tersasul?

Apr 4, 2012


Pada 28 Mac 2012, saya menginap di sebuah resort yang terletak di dalam satu kompleks pusat rekreasi yang agak terkenal di Malaysia. Saya menginap di sebuah chalet yang terletak berdekatan air terjun. Yang menariknya, di dalam tandas chalet yang saya menginap ini terdapat dua mangkuk tandas, yang kedua-duanya boleh digunakan.

Sifat ingin tahu saya tentang hal ini telah membawa saya kepada jawapan yang diberikan sendiri oleh Pengurus Besar resort ini: "Chalet tersebut pernah digunakan oleh seorang anak VVIP yang memerlukan tandas khas yang lebih rendah..."

Apr 1, 2012


Ungkapan, atau catatan yang mengandungi perkataan "50:50" kerap juga kita jumpa, kan? Misalnya:

"Pesakit tersebut ditempatkan dalam wad ICU, peluang untuk pulih adalah 50:50"
"Saya berpendapat, peluang calun ini untuk menang adalah 50:50"
"Saya letakkan kadar 50:50 untuk dia berjaya dalam pertandingan tersebut"
"... menolak andaian bahawa Parti ... mempunyai peluang 50-50 untuk menang dalam pilihanraya umum akan datang..."
"Pelan damai ini mempunyai peluang 50:50 untuk berjaya diimplementasikan"

Malah terdapat filem drama komedi 50/50 yang diterbitkan dalam tahun 2011 yang diarahkan oleh Jonathan Levine, ditulis oleh Will Reiser, dan dibintangi antaranya Joseph Gordon-Levitt dan Seth Rogen.

Apakah maksud sebenar orang yang mengemukakan pandangan, ide, atau cadangan tersebut? Pada pandangan saya, orang yang mengungkapkan ayat tersebut tidak yakin diri, atau, dalam kes yang lain, dia sendiri tidak pasti tentang hujung pangkalnya, atau, cerita/berita tersebut belum muktamad, atau, menggambarkan situasi yang tidak menentu, atau, adakah itu gambaran orang yang penakut?